Bromo-Tengger-semeru National park,

Indonesia 

 

    

Location: Tengger massif, East Java, Indonesia

 

The 16-km-wide Tengger caldera is located at the northern end of a volcanic massif extending from Semeru volcano. The massive Tengger volcanic complex dates back to about 820,000 years ago and consists of five overlapping stratovolcanoes, each truncated by a caldera. Lava domes, pyroclastic cones, and a maar occupy the flanks of the massif. The Ngadisari caldera at the NE end of the complex formed about 150,000 years ago and is now drained through the Sapikerep valley.

 

The most recent of the Tengger calderas is the 9 x 10 km wide Sandsea caldera at the SW end of the complex, which formed incrementally during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene. An overlapping cluster of post-caldera cones was constructed on the floor of the Sandsea caldera within the past several thousand years. The youngest of these is Bromo, one of Java's most active and most frequently visited volcanoes.

 

Read more in depth information about Bromo and Tengger Caldera at: The Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program 

 

 

Bromo-Tengger Volcanoes - photography 2009-2014

Note: The photos are arranged in pages according to time, for viewers to be able to follow the activity/situation over time. Open the different pages by clicking the front photo/link to see the contents (photos and videos) of the relevant visit.

 

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5-6th December 2014.

 

Activity level at Bromo remained the same as my visit in October. Most of the water present in the crater of Bromo troughout 2014 have now vapourized. Semeru volcano that is located south-east of the Tengger Caldera, had crater-glow visible during the night. The crater-glow is caused by it`s growing lava-dome.

 

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9th October 2014.

 

Short visit in connection to a hiking trip to the summit of Mt. Semeru

 

Activity level remained the same as in June.

 

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13-15th June 2014.

 

During this visit I spent a lot of time filming and taking photos from my drone. Also had a morning-visit to the top of Mt. Batok.

 

Activity level remained the same as in May.

 

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24-27th May 2014.

 

Bromo had an increase in it`s activity level in May, consisting of increased Sulphur- and steam emissions. On a visit to the crater area , I noted obvious changes that have occured since 2013. The body of water that have been inside its crater since 2012 have mostly evaporated, and the more solid dirt inside the crater shows traces of heavy sulphur emissions.

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8-10th March 2014.

 

Since my last visit in December, no new activity was observed. Semeru Volcano (south of the Tengger caldera) now seem to emit white-steam clouds during eruptions. On my previous visits (2010 to mid 2013), the eruption clouds seemed to contain more brown-black ash.

 

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26-27th December 2013.

 

No obvious changes since my visit in October. The crater lake in Bromo is still visible inside the crater.

 

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12-13th October 2013.

 

No obvious changes since my visit in June, apart from the crater-lake in the crater of Bromo seem to have dried up - most likely as an result of the dry weather of the prevailing dry-season in East-Java.

 

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13-16th June 2013.

 

Lake in the Bromo Crater, color and amount looks the same as observed in August 2012. Gas emissions has increased slightly, from reaching not more than 30m. above the cone in August 2012, to sometimes as high as 300-400m. Mt. Semeru emitted small ash clouds every 30+ min.

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Date of photo: 17-20 August 2012.

 

 

Returned to the Tengger caldera, after being absent for almost one year. The dry season has set and the weather was clear for the whole 3 day stay. Since August last year it is noticeable that the activity has decreased at Bromo, the gas plumes were only sporadic, and never rose to an altitude of more than 100ft. The crater holds an small Turquoise-colored acid lake now.

 

As an effect of the dry season, the area havenít seen much rainfall the last few months, and the dry crater walls of Bromo sometimes releases small landslides, which sometimes ends up in the lake - creating a quite unique bang-sound, because of the echo. During the many visits to the crater on this trip, this sound came as an surprise for many of the tourists that had made it to the crater - some of them who were unaware of the small landslide that had happened - were seen running down the crater, as if the volcano was about to erupt..!! :)

 

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Date of photo: 19-21 August 2011.

 

The Bromo Tengger National park is one of my favorite destinations in Indonesia. The cold climate remind me of home, the many volcanoes fuel my volcano/photography hobby and the spectacular scenic views always make the trip worth.

 

This was my fifth trip to the area. Since my trip in March, eruptions have stopped at Bromo and it appears to have gone back to the state of continuously emitting gas. It have been quiet since the end of April, and we might have to wait for a while to see another session of eruptions, for a few years maybe if you study its eruptive pattern. This period of low activity on Bromo also gave me the opportunity to visit its crater.

 

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Date of photo: 26-27 March, 2011. 

 

 

I arrived after dawn, and after a few minutes I captured the first photo in this serie, seen underneath. A strompolian eruptions where Bromo threw lava bombs up to approximately 100m from the volcano. Most of the activity during the night showed that most of the lava bombs where not thrown out of the crater, although there were a few.

This made me to conclude that It would be relatively safe to move as close as 500m from the crater, as needed for the photo shoot the morning after. The sound from Bromo was at this visit the most violent I have experienced it during its eruption in 2010/11, naturally during the strombolian eruptions. These eruptions occurred in a interval from 1 to each 1 or 2 hours, and lasted for 10-20 sec.

 

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Date of photo: 15-17 January, 2011. 

 

After my last visit to Bromo one month ago, the area was obviously more affected by ashfall. Most crops had failed and some hoses had collapsed roofs. The volcano at this point gave of sound at certain points, followed by eruptions of ash. A sustained plume of ash sent ash as far as Malang.

  

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Date of photo: 5-6 December, 2010. 

 

During the initial eruption of the recent eruption of Bromo volcano I was lucky enough to be able to visit the area. The weather during the visit was cloudy with heavy rain, so it was not until one day after my arrival that I was able to actually see the volcano, even though the ash fall was prominent on the streets in the village of Cemero Lawang, were I stayed, was covered in ash at least 10cm deep. During the initial eruption not much sound was heard from the volcano and no lava was seen, during my visit.

 

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Date of photo: 31 October, 2009.

 

My first visit to the Tengger caldera. Mt. Bromo was at this point not active, however a steady steem of gas.

 

 

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ōystein Lund Andersen © 2011

Contact: Andersen_oystein@hotmail.com