Tengger-semeru National park,
Location: Tengger massif, East Java, Indonesia
Photos: 81 available in format/size: More photos available on request.
Time lapse video: 1.
The 16-km-wide Tengger caldera is located at the northern end of a volcanic massif extending from Semeru volcano. The massive Tengger volcanic complex dates back to about 820,000 years ago and consists of five overlapping stratovolcanoes, each truncated by a caldera. Lava domes, pyroclastic cones, and a maar occupy the flanks of the massif. The Ngadisari caldera at the NE end of the complex formed about 150,000 years ago and is now drained through the Sapikerep valley.
The most recent of the Tengger calderas is the 9 x 10 km wide Sandsea caldera at the SW end of the complex, which formed incrementally during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene. An overlapping cluster of post-caldera cones was constructed on the floor of the Sandsea caldera within the past several thousand years. The youngest of these is Bromo, one of Java's most active and most frequently visited volcanoes.
Read more in depth information about Bromo and Tengger Caldera at: The Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program
12-13th October 2013.
No obvious changes since my visit in June, apart from the crater-lake seem to have dried up - most likely as an result of the dry weather of the prevailing dry-season in East-Java.
The Tengger-caldera pre-dawn. (12th October)
Star-trais above the Tengger-Caldera (35min. exposure) (12th October)
A satelite passes west of the Tengger-Caldera at dusk. (12th October)
Bromo at dawn.
Bromo and Batok seen from the village of Cemera Lowang.
Cemera Lowang village and the Tengger Caldera.
13-16th June 2013.
Lake in the Bromo Crater, color and amount looks the same as observed in August 2012. Gas emissions has increased slightly, from reaching not more than 30m. above the cone in August 2012, to sometimes as high as 300-400m. Mt. Semeru emitted small ash clouds every 30+ min.
Semeru in the bacground, Bromo (left-forground) and Batok (right-forground)
Color and amount of water in the crater lake seem the same as in 2012.
The crater of Bromo is much wider today, than it was before the 2010-2011 eruptions.
The extinct Batok volcano in the background.
The extinct Mt. Kursi volcano crater.
View from Bromo into the Tengger caldera.
Semeru sending up a small cloud of ash.
Semeru erupting in the background, and Bromo emitting gas.
Date of photo: 17-20 August 2012.
Returned to the Tengger caldera, after being absent for almost one year. The dry season has set and the weather was clear for the whole 3 day stay. Since August last year it is noticeable that the activity has decreased at Bromo, the gas plumes were only sporadic, and never rose to an altitude of more than 100ft. The crater holds an small Turquoise-colored acid lake now.
As an effect of the dry season, the area havenít seen much rainfall the last few months, and the dry crater walls of Bromo sometimes releases small landslides, which sometimes ends up in the lake - creating a quite unique bang-sound, because of the echo. During the many visits to the crater on this trip, this sound came as an surprise for many of the tourists that had made it to the crater - some of them who were unaware of the small landslide that had happened - were seen running down the crater, as if the volcano was about to erupt..!! :)
State of Bromo:Repose
Type of activity:crater Lake in the Bromo Crater. Some gas emissions from Mt. Bromo, reaching not more than 100ft above the cone. Mt. Semeru sent up small ash clouds every 30 hour or so.
The tengger caldera.
From the left: Bromo crater, Kursi crater, Mount Watangan, Mount Widodaren crater, and Mount Semeru in the background.
Mt. Batok in the foreground. The only active cone in the tengger caldera is Bromo, but Semeru - the tallest mountain and volcano on Java - is also active.
The broad crater of Mt. Bromo emitting a small cloud of gas.
Bromo seen from the top of Batok
The crater of Bromo now hold a crater-lake.
Close up on the acid Turquoise-colored water. The lake/water is a result of the rainy season that ended in May 2012.
Bromo held a crater lake also in 1838, which according to the Smithsonian inst. ended with a Crater lake eruption
Mount Batok seen from Bromo.
On the top of Mt. Batok.
On the top of Mt. Batok.
Semeru seen from the top of Mt. Batok.
The milky way seen from the edge of the Tengger caldera, Mt. Batok in the forground.
Star trails over the Tengger caldera. (30min exposure)
The peaks of Arjuna-Welirang volcano seen from the tengger caldera.
The extinct Penanggungan Volcano, seen from the tengger caldera.
Date of photo: 19-21 August 2011.
The Bromo Tengger National park is one of my favorite destinations in Indonesia. The cold climate remind me of home, the many volcanoes fuel my volcano/photography hobby and the spectacular scenic views always make the trip worth.
This was my fifth trip to the area. Since my trip in March, eruptions have stopped at Bromo and it appears to have gone back to the state of continuously emitting gas. It have been quiet since the end of April, and we might have to wait for a while to see another session of eruptions, for a few years maybe if you study its eruptive pattern. This period of low activity on Bromo also gave me the opportunity to visit its crater.
State of Bromo: Repose
Type of activity:Continious gas emissions from Mt. Bromo. Mt. Semuru sent up ash cloudes every 1 hour or so.
Night exposure. Moon was behind me and assisted with the light conditions.
Bromo with a moving plume of ash from Mt. Semeru behind the hills behind.
Sunrise. Fog remains down below in the Tengger Caldera. The village of Cemera Lowang down left.
15 minutes later fog is fading away, and Bromo appears.
Wish I could wake up to this view more often.
Bromo and Batok
The crater is "clear". The mass that filled the Bromo crater before the 2010/11 eruption started, is gone. (compare with crater photo from 2009)
The sea of sand in the Tengger Caldera reminds of a moon landscape, when seen from above.
Time lapse photography from 21August. 1:11s:
(click photo or link under to open the video in Youtube)
Date of photo: 26-27 March, 2011.
I arrived after dawn, and after a few minutes I captured the first photo in this serie, seen underneath. A strompolian eruptions where Bromo threw lava bombs up to approximately 100m from the volcano. Most of the activity during the night showed that most of the lava bombs where not thrown out of the crater, although there were a few.
This made me to conclude that It would be relatively safe to move as close as 500m from the crater, as needed for the photo shoot the morning after. The sound from Bromo was at this visit the most violent I have experienced it during its eruption in 2010/11, naturally during the strombolian eruptions. These eruptions occurred in a interval from 1 to each 1 or 2 hours, and lasted for 10-20 sec.
Type of activity: Strombolian and possible volcanian eruptions
Intervals between eruptions: 1-2 hours between the large eruptions. Some periodes of long (up to 30min) low activity eruptions that had sustained ash plumes.
Date of photo: 15-17 January, 2011.
After my last visit to Bromo one month ago, the area was obviously more affected by ashfall. Most crops had failed and some hoses had collapsed roofs. The volcano at this point gave of sound at certain points, followed by eruptions of ash. A sustained plume of ash sent ash as far as Malang.
Type of activity: Strombolian eruptions.
Intervals between eruptions: Almost continuous.
Failed crops due to heavy ashfall.
Prominent ashfall in Cemera Lawang village, located 1km south of Mt. Bromo
Date of photo: 5-6 December, 2010.
During the initial eruption of the recent eruption of Bromo volcano I was lucky enough to be able to visit the area. The weather during the visit was cloudy with heavy rain, so it was not until one day after my arrival that I was able to actually see the volcano, even though the ash fall was prominent on the streets in the village of Cemero Lawang, were I stayed, was covered in ash at least 10cm deep. During the initial eruption not much sound was heard from the volcano and no lava was seen, during my visit.
Type of activity: Strombolian eruptions
Intervals between eruptions:
Architecture of the Tengger people in front of Mt. Bromo.
Mt. Bromo spewing smoke and ash. The dormant Mt. Batok (2470m) volcano to the right.
Date of photo: 31 October, 2009.
My first visit to the Tengger caldera. Mt. Bromo was at this point not active, however a steady steem of gas.
Type of activity: Continuous gas emissions.
Photo available in format/size: RAW/JPG - 3888 x 2588 pixels.
ōystein Lund Andersen © 2011