Bromo Volcano Eruption – February 2016 (1)

7-10th February

Updated: 11th February – 22:05 local time

7th February

Activity of the Volcano

Update 15:15:

Heavy degassing was observed during arrival in the afternoon, accompanied by a irregular but periodically heavy rumbling sound. The degassing plume was more or less consistent, but with short periods of total calm. After these periods of calm, larger degassing plumes tend to appear, accompanied by large rumbling sounds, and in one case an (Vulcanian?) eruption 14:14. The eruption started with the appearance of a volcanic shockwave (see video), and seconds later followed by an ash plume appeared that reached around 800m in height. Sounds of falling rock/ blocks was heard seconds after the appearance of the eruption plume. The ash content decreased within 30min after the eruption.

Update: 00:00:

Next eruption happened at 15:45, and the ash-plume sustained for around 45minutes.  Weather deteriorated (fog) around this time, but I managed to get a few pictures of it. The next eruption that started at 16:50. The 16:50 eruption was initially explosive, characterized by a booming sound, but ash-venting continued throughout the evening. Late evening, intense red glow was seen above the crater minutes before a small eruption (23:41). Interestingly the crater glow that seemed this intense, was a precursor to a very small eruption, that did not seem to correlate. In the aftermath of each (strombolian) eruption, the red glow from the crater seemed to fade away for a while.

(13:26)
Degassing (13:26)
(13:27)
After periods of less intense degassing – a blue colored gas appeared. (13:27)
(13:27)
(13:27)
(13:47)
(13:47)
(14:15)
(Vulcanian) Eruption occurs and ash plume appears within the degassing plume (14:15)
14:18
Ash venting occurred after the initial eruption and lasts for around 45 minutes. (14:18)
Bromo Eruption February 2016 volcano Indonesia
Aftermath of the 15:45 local time eruption. Ash output content is diminishing at this point (16:04)
Bromo Eruption February 2016 volcano Indonesia
Newly accumulated ash(16:04)
Bromo Eruption February 2016 volcano Indonesia
Degassing (18:11)
Bromo Eruption February 2016 volcano Indonesia Canon-6D
Volcano-photography can be challenging, and outright expensive (19:31)
Bromo Eruption February 2016 volcano Indonesia
The red glow was intense during some periods, most of the time accompanied by heavy noise/rumbling sounds (23:30)
Bromo Eruption February 2016 volcano Indonesia
(24:34)
Bromo Eruption February 2016 volcano Indonesia
Strombolian eruption. (Very challenging photography condtions) (23:41)

8th February

Activity of the Volcano

Update:13:53 local time:

First eruption of the day was heard around 10:57 local time, accompanied by a short period of ash-emission. Plume reached around 600-800m in height.

Update: 00:00 local time

During the afternoon and evening degassing continued, accompanied by medium to strong rumbling sounds, and periodically strong crater-glow. The crater-glow seems to be caused by super-heated gas. Incandescent material was seen ejected from the crater at 20:31 during a small eruption, that saw a few rocks been thrown out of the crater area. Later in the evening incandescent material was also seen, but landed within the crater area. Ash-emissions only occurred in a short period after the 10:57 eruption, and not in the afternoon or evening.

Bromo Eruption February 2016 volcano Indonesia
Photo of eruption plume that occured minutes before this photo was taken (8th February – 11:04 local time)
Bromo Eruption February 2016 volcano Indonesia
Degassing(17:09)
Bromo Eruption February 2016 volcano Indonesia
(17:36)
Bromo Eruption February 2016 volcano Indonesia
Degassing continues throughout the evening, accompanied by loud rumbling noise and crater-glow(18:46)
Bromo Eruption February 2016 volcano Indonesia
(19:53)
Bromo Eruption February 2016 volcano Indonesia
(20:31)
Bromo Eruption February 2016 volcano Indonesia
(20:32)
Bromo Eruption February 2016 volcano Indonesia
(21:19)
Bromo Eruption February 2016 volcano Indonesia
(21:20)
Bromo Eruption February 2016 volcano Indonesia
(21:42)
Bromo Eruption February 2016 volcano Indonesia
Glow from the crater is most likely created by super-heated gas, that is escaping the magma. (22:24)
Bromo Eruption February 2016 volcano Indonesia
(23:24)

9th February

Activity of the Volcano

Update 19:38:

Medium to strong degassing was observed throughout the day. Crater-glow present during early morning and evening.

Update 00:00:

Degassing with crater-glow and rumbling sounds was present early evening.  Two occurrences of small strombolian eruptions was seen. After around 22:10 crater glow and rumbling sounds slowly faded away. Activity level decreased.

 

Bromo Eruption February 2016 volcano Indonesia
(00:14)
Bromo Eruption February 2016 volcano Indonesia
Small eruption occurred (00:33)
Bromo Eruption February 2016 volcano Indonesia
Degassing (01:18)
Bromo Eruption February 2016 volcano Indonesia
Another small eruption, rocks falls within the crater (01:22)
Bromo Eruption February 2016 volcano Indonesia
(12:59)
Bromo Eruption February 2016 volcano Indonesia
(17:22)
Bromo Eruption February 2016 volcano Indonesia
(17:27)
Bromo Eruption February 2016 volcano Indonesia
(18:38)
Bromo Eruption February 2016 volcano Indonesia
(20:30)
Bromo Eruption February 2016 volcano Indonesia
(21:56) Fog moves in the Tengger Caldera. Bromo seen with crater-glow, and degassing plume.
Bromo Eruption February 2016 volcano Indonesia
(22:01) Small strombolian eruption.
Bromo Eruption February 2016 volcano Indonesia
(22:15) The activity level decreased around this time.

 

 

10th February

Activity of the Volcano

Update 1700:

During early-morning, the activity level of Bromo continued on the low side. No crater-glow or rumbling sounds were observed. The plume did however seem to contain small amounts of ash this morning. Plume reached 400-600m above the volcano.

Bromo Eruption February 2016 volcano Indonesia
(03:51) Bromo emitting a steady plume, heading West. Semeru seen behind with it`s own plume and some crater-glow.
Bromo Eruption February 2016 volcano Indonesia
(03:56)
Bromo Eruption February 2016 volcano Indonesia
(04:12)
Bromo Eruption February 2016 volcano Indonesia
(04:56)
10thnovember2016-bromo (1)
(06:42) Degassing plume from Bromo seem to contain small amounts of ash this morning.

 

Bromo Eruption February 2016 volcano Indonesia Dji Phantom Aerial photography
Aerial view taken from a hobby drone. (06:47)
Bromo Eruption February 2016 volcano Indonesia Dji Phantom Aerial photography
(06:49)
Bromo Eruption February 2016 volcano Indonesia Dji Phantom Aerial photography
Above the clouds. The edge of the Tengger Caldera can be seen below.

volcano Indonesia Dji Phantom Aerial photography Bromo Tengger Caldera

 

 

Summary:

After it`s elevated status and initial eruptive activity, the volcanic-activity of the Bromo cone have gradually changed. In December to late January, Bromo was in almost a continuous state of erupting ash. Ash-emissions and sustained plumes carried big amounts of ash. The ash covered lands in the vicinity of the volcano but also brought far away outside the Tengger Caldera, and resulted in the closure of a few nearby airports.

In late January activity became intermittent between degassing, explosive Strombolian eruptions and phases of ash-emissions, that seem to be initiated by the more explosive eruption activity. Volcanian*(1) eruption type may have occurred too. A red glow could often be seen above the crater area at night, and rumbling sounds could be heard clearly 2-3km from the crater. The red-glow and the rumbling sounds did not always correspond to each other. The explosive (strombolian) eruptions occurred during the climax of this activity, and resulted in rocks being ejected above or outside the crater. After an eruption, the red glow and the rumbling sounds, in most cases, ceased to be seen/heard for periods of minutes to hours. This was especially the case when these eruptions initiated the eruption of ash.

In the evening of the 9th February the activity decreased after a short episode of strombolian activity, and remained low until my departure on the 11th. The eruptive activity is fluacting but seismic signals recorded by the Geological Survey of Indonesia (PVMG) suggests that the eruption is not over yet.

*(1). On the 7th February I observed an explosive eruption, that was initiated by a volcanic-shockwave (see video). An ash-plume and large explosion-sound arrived seconds after the shockwave, and the sound of falling blocks/rocks were heard as well.The initial eruption was followed by 45 minutes of erupting-ash (ash-venting).

 

 



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